||Reading impairment: from behavior to brain
Studies on the language impairments in children cover a wide range of different topics and they have given rise to various theoretical accounts. Here we focus on specific reading impairments (dyslexia), and we relate them to different cognitive deficits. We first explain speech perception using phonemic units, which have vital importance for learning to read and are the end-product of a long standing developmental process. Then we review the three basic competencies that are necessary for typical reading acquisition (phonemic speech perception, grapho-phonemic associations, and visual perception of graphemic units) explaining how a deficit in one of these three competencies maybe at the root of dyslexia. Finally, some clinical implications of the current knowledge are provided and suggestions for remediation are offered.