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Resumption in Focus(-Raising)

Hungarian focus-raising constructions had traditionally been analyzed as instances of long-distance movement (É. Kiss 1987, Marácz 1987, Horvath 1995, 1998, Lipták 1998). Recently, new empirical evidence (Gervain 2005) has shown that while some speakers do indeed derive the construction by movement, others use a resumptive strategy instead. The current paper investigates the exact nature of this resumptive dependency, asking whether the resumptive is pronominal or variable-like. Using islands, strong crossover effects, reconstruction and parasitic gap licensing as diagnostic tests, it is shown that resumptives in Hungarian FR are derivationally not traces, since they do not result from movement, but they are variables, requiring local A’-binding.