||Visual perception of planar orientation: dominance of static depth cues over motion cues
We measured the ability to report the tilt (direction of maximal slope) of a plane under monocular viewing conditions, from static depth cues (square grid patterns) and motion parallax (small rotations of the plane about a frontoparallel axis). These two cues were presented separately, or simultaneously. In the latter case they specified tilts that were either collinear (coherent case) or orthogonal (conflict case). The field of view was small (8 degrees) or large (60 degrees). In small field, for motion parallax, the reported tilt depends strongly on the orientation of the plane relative to the rotation axis, being totally ambiguous when tilt is collinear with the rotation axis. In contrast, in large field, the reported tilt depends little on this variable, and is accurately specified by motion cues. In both cases static cues strongly dominated the tilt reports. Hence static grid patterns constitute robust tilt cues, which can dominate contradictory tilt indications from motion parallax, and should be considered as essential for the visual orientation during locomotion, or the immersion in virtual reality environments.