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Expectations increase the benefit derived from parafoveal visual information in reading words aloud

Conducted 2 experiments in which 18 undergraduates named visually presented words preceded by a "preview" stimulus presented in parafoveal vision. When there was no constraint on which word would be shown, the preview had little effect on the time required to name the foveal presentation of the target word. However, when the target was chosen from a constrained set of 8 words seen repeatedly by S, the preview produced a large naming facilitation. Likewise, when constraints were generated by preceding context, the preview again produced a large naming facilitation. A weak context, which by itself was insufficient to facilitate performance, nevertheless was sufficient to increase the size of the preview-benefit effect. Results suggest that Ss were able to take 2 sources of information, each of which by itself is insufficient to facilitate performance, and combine them to derive a substantial benefit. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)



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